Muso Jikiden Eishin Ryu Iaido
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Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū (無双直伝英信流 or 無雙直傳英信流), is a koryū sword art, and one of the most widely practiced schools of iaijutsu in the world. Often referred to simply as “Eishin-ryū,” it claims an unbroken lineage dating back to the sixteenth century.
The school takes its name from its seventh headmaster, Hasegawa Chikaranosuke Hidenobu (長谷川主税助英信), who had a profound influence on the style. ‘Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū’ means ‘peerless, directly transmitted school of Eishin .’ ‘Eishin’ is an alternative pronunciation of ‘Hidenobu.’
History of Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū
The founder of the art that was to become Eishin-ryū was Hayashizaki Jinsuke Minamoto no Shigenobu (林崎甚助源重信). Hayashizaki was born in Dewa Province , Ōshū (present-day Yamagata Prefecture ). He lived c.1546－1621 in what is present-day Kanagawa Prefecture . Many of the historical details of Hayashizaki’s life are suspect, since, like most famous martial artists in Japan , his story has been widely fictionalized. It seems, however, that he grew up during a time of constant warfare in Japan and was exposed to various sword-fighting methods from an early age. According to legend, Hayashizaki’s father was killed, and in order to take revenge he began training in earnest. He went to the Hayashizaki Meijin shrine to pray for guidance, and received divine inspiration for a new technique of drawing the sword and attacking in one movement. Legend says that he eventually defeated his father’s killer.
Following this, Hayashizaki continued on his martial arts pilgrimage, training with renowned swordsmen and attracting students of his own (such as Tamiya Heibei, founder of Tamiya-ryū (Tsumaki)). Hayashizaki established his own style of swordsmanship, calling it Shinmei Musō-ryū (神明夢想流).
Hayashizaki’s art has had many names since it was established, such as Hayashizaki-ryū (林崎流) or Jūshin ryu (重信流). It is considered the foundation for many of the major styles of iai practised today, in particular Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū and Musō Shinden-ryū.
The seventh generation sōke of Hayashizaki’s school, Hasegawa Chikaranosuke Hidenobu (Eishin), was one of its most important headmasters. He had a major influence on the school. In particular, he adapted techniques originally developed for the tachi to use the contemporary katana. He also devised many new techniques, some of which now form the Tachihiza no Bu (Chūden) set. Hasegawa’s influence and adaptation led to the style being named Hasegawa Eishin-ryū. It was also referred to as Hasegawa-ryū or simply Eishin-ryū.
Some regard Hasegawa as the primary founder of Eishin-ryū, which would make him the first generation sōke rather than the seventh, and make Shinmei Musō-ryū a parent school of Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū.
The ninth generation sōke was Hayashi Rokudayū Morimasa. Hayashi introduced a set of techniques executed from the formal seated position seiza. These techniques are thought to have been developed by Hayashi’s kenjutsu teacher, the Shinkage-ryū swordsman Ōmori Rokurōzaemon,[ and are said to be influenced by Ogasawara-ryū etiquette, hence starting from seiza. They were taught alongside Eishin-ryū as Ōmori-ryū. Hayashi was also responsible for introducing the school to the Tosa Domain at the behest of the ruling Yamauchi family.
As the school took root in Tosa, it came to be referred to as Tosa Eishin-ryū. Eishin-ryū and Ōmori-ryū were also taught to the Yamauchi family, with a few peculiarities (such as exaggerated leg movement to account for long hakama).
After the death of the 11th headmaster, Ōguro Motozaemon, the school split into two branches. These branches later became known as the Tanimura-ha and Shimomura-ha (after their respective 15th and 14th headmasters, Tanimura Kamenojō Takakatsu and Shimomura Shigeichi).
One of the most important sōke was the seventeenth, Ōe Masamichi. Born in Tosa in 1852, in his youth Ōe studied Kokuri-ryū and Shinkage-ryū kenjutsu, along with Shimomura-ha Eishin-ryū. At the age of 15 he took part in the Battle of Toba-Fushimi, following which he studied Tanimura-ha Eishin-ryū under Gotō Magobei. He also studied Eishin-ryū bōjutsu under Itagaki Taisuke. Ōe inherited leadership of the Tanimura-ha, becoming its 17th headmaster. He combined the school’s teachings with those of the Shimomura-ha, and restructured its curriculum. Ōe reduced the number of waza from around 160, and reorganized them into the Seiza (Shoden), Tachihiza (Chūden), Okuiai (Okuden) and kumitachi waza sets practised today. Although he retained the original techniques, he changed the names of some waza to aid understanding. Ōe named the reorganised school Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū. In 1900 he began teaching kendo and Eishin-ryū at the Kōchi branch of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai and at various local schools. In 1924 he became the second person (after Nakayama Hakudō) to be awarded hanshi in iaidō by the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai. Ōe died in 1927. His many students went on to spread Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū iai beyond Tosa and throughout Japan .
Lineage of Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū
Eishin-ryū uses a system of indiscriminate transmission (完全相傳), allowing anyone in possession of full-transmission to award licenses to any number of his students. Therefore it is possible that there were multiple but unlisted holders of menkyo kaiden, known in Eishin-ryū as Kongen no Maki (根元之巻), in any generation. Due also in part to Ōe Masamichi’s more open and inclusive approach to teaching Eishin-ryū, the lineages of groups currently practicing the art are fairly diverse and complex.
Seitō (Orthodox) Lineage
•Hayashizaki Jinsuke Minamoto no Shigenobu, founder
- •Tamiya Heibei Shigemasa, 2nd generation
- •Nagano Muraku Nyūdō Kinrosai, 3rd generation
- •Todo Gunbei Mitsushige, 4th generation
- •Arikawa Seizaemon Munetsugu, 5th generation
- •Banno Danemonnojō Nobusada, 6th generation
- •Hasegawa Chikaranosuke Hidenobu (Eishin), 7th generation
- •Arai Seitetsu Kiyonobu, 8th generation
- •Hayashi Rokudayū Morimasa, 9th generation
- •Hayashi Yasudayū Masatomo, 10th generation
- •Ōguro Motoemon Kiyokatsu, 11th generation
- •Hayashi Masunojō Masanori, 12th generation
- •Yoda Manzō Norikatsu, 13th generation
- •Hayashi Yadayū Masamoto, 14th generation
- •Tanimura Kamenojō Takakatsu, 15th generation
- •Gotō Magobei Masasuke (?-1897), 16th generation
- •Ōe Masamichi (1852–1927), 17th generation
- ◦Ōe Masamichi’s students established multiple lines of transmission. See Students of Ōe Masamichi.
- •Hokiyama Namio (1891–1935), 18th generation
- •Fukui Harumasa (1884–1971), 19th generation
- •Kōno Hyakuren (1899–1974), 20th generation
- •Fukui Torao (1915–2000), 21st generation
- •Ikeda Takashi (1932–), 22nd generation
Following Kōno Hyakuren’s death, the lineage of Eishin-ryu became contested again, with several individuals claiming to be the most senior representative. Who people consider sōke generally depends on the organization to which they belong. Some consider Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū to no longer have a sōke.
In addition to various groups claiming to continue the above lineage, there are some branches of Eishin-ryū that trace their lineage back to students of Ōe Masamichi other than Hokiyama Namio, and which regard their leaders as the most senior member of the school.
There are also a number of lines of transmission with direct links to Ōe Masamichi but which do not make claims to hold leadership of Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū.
Students of Ōe Masamichi
Ōe Masamichi had many students who went on to spread Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū throughout Japan . Some established their own branches (派, ha). Seventeen of Ōe’s most influential students are listed below. This list is not inclusive. Some of these students were also presented with menkyo kaiden although the exact number Ōe awarded is unknown. Most Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū taught today traces its lineage back to one or more of these men.
•Masaoka Katsutane (Κazumi, “Ikkan”) (1896-1973)
- •Kōda Morio
- •Matsuda Eima
- •Yamasaki Yasukichi
- •Nakanishi Iwaki
- •Taoka Den
- •Hokiyama Namio (1891-1935), 18th generation sōke
- •Fukui Harumasa (1894-1971), 19th generation sōke
- •Suzuki Yoshishige (Suzue Yoshishige)
- •Mori Shigeki (1890-1988)
- •Yamamoto Takuji (1886-1977)
- •Takemura Shizuo
- •Yamamoto Harusuke (1892-1978)
- •Sakamoto Tosakai
- •Yamauchi Toyotake (1905-1946)
- •Ueda Heitarō
The techniques of Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū are broken up into sets based on the principal starting position of the waza, and by skill level. The majority of the study is focused on these solo waza.
Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū contains a total of 45 solo waza and 45 paired waza, although some of these paired waza are rarely taught. Certain lines also contain additional waza, grouped under Bangai no Bu.
Solo waza use a single long sword (katana).
Seiza no Bu (Shoden)
The word Shoden (初伝) can be translated as ‘entry-transmission.’ This set of techniques was derived from Ōmori-ryū, and is still often referred to as “Ōmori-ryū.” It is the first set of techniques taught. Seiza no Bu waza are performed from seiza, a formal kneeling position, with the general exception of Oikaze, which often begins standing.
Seiza no Bu (正座之部) contains the following techniques:
Tachihiza no Bu (Chūden)
“Eishin-ryū” redirects here. For the style founded by Hasegawa Eishin, see Hasegawa Eishin-ryū.
The word Chūden (中伝) can be translated as ‘middle-transmission.’ This set was derived from techniques created by Hasegawa Eishin, and is still commonly referred to as “Eishin-ryū.” It is the second set of techniques taught. Tachihiza no Bu waza are performed from tatehiza, a half-seated position, with the exception of Makkō.
Tachihiza no Bu (立膝之部) contains the following techniques:
2.虎一足 Tora no issoku
Okuiai Iwaza no Bu (Okuden)
The word Okuden (奥伝) can be translated as ‘inner transmission,’ or ‘secret transmission.’ The Okuden sets contain advanced-level techniques. Okuiai Iwaza are performed from tatehiza.
Okuiai Iwaza no Bu (奥居合居業之部) contains the following techniques:
Okuiai Tachiwaza no Bu (Okuden)
Okuiai Tachiwaza are performed from a standing position, with the exception of the three Itamagoi waza, which start from seiza.
Okuiai Tachiwaza no Bu (奥居合立業之部) contains the following techniques:
3.惣捲 Sō Makuri
4.惣留 Sō Dome
7.袖摺返 Sode Surigaeshi
11.暇乞其の一 Itomagoi Sono Ichi
12.暇乞其の二 Itomagoi Sono Ni
13.暇乞其の三 Itomagoi Sono San
Bangai no Bu (Okuden)
Bangai (番外, lit. ‘extra’) are extended tachiwaza. These waza are not koryū, but were created by Ōe Masamichi, along with the Katate Hayanuki exercise.
Bangai no bu (番外之部) contains the following waza, performed from a standing position.
In addition to variations of Hayanami and Raiden, some lines contain additional Bangai waza.
Paired Waza (Kumitachi)
Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū’s paired waza (kumitachi, 組太刀) are often taught only to advanced students after years of study]. Some of these sets are rarely seen outside of Japan . There is a high incidence of grappling, striking, and disarms in these paired sets. Some waza use both long (ōdachi) and short (kodachi) swords.
Some waza begin with swords drawn; others begin with swords sheathed and employ nukitsuke (drawing) techniques. Typically these forms are practiced using bokutō; however, it is also practiced at high levels with shinken.
Tachi Uchi no Kurai
Tachi Uchi no Kurai (太刀打之位) is first kumitachi waza set in Eishin-ryū. Both practitioners use a single long sword. The techniques are performed from a standing position.
There are two versions of this set: the original set of 10 waza (Tachi Uchi no Kurai) and the revised set of 7 waza formulated by Ōe Masamichi (also known as Tachi Uchi no Kata). These two sets contain similar techniques.
Tachi Uchi no Kurai (Koryū)
This version of the set contains the following 10 techniques:
Tachi Uchi no Kurai (Kata devised by Ōe Masamichi)
This version of the set contains the following 7 techniques:
Tsume Ai no Kurai
Tsume Ai no Kurai (詰合之位) is the second kumitachi waza set in Eishin-ryū. Both practitioners use a single long sword. The set includes the following techniques, performed from tatehiza and standing positions:
6.位弛 Kurai Yurumi
7.燕返 Tsubame Gaeshi
8.眼関落 Ganseki Otoshi
10.霞剣 Kasumi Ken
The following kumitachi sets (Daishō Zume, Daishō Tachi Zume and Daikendori) are very rarely taught, and are often assumed to be no longer practised.
Daishō Zume (大小詰) is the third of the kumitachi sets. Long and short swords (daishō) are worn. The set contains the following techniques, which start from tatehiza.
Daishō Tachi Zume
Daishō Tachi Zume (大小立詰) is the fourth of the kumitachi sets. Long and short swords (daishō) are worn. The set contains the following techniques, which start from a standing position.
2.袖摺返 Sode Surigaeshi
3.鍔打返 Tsuba Uchikaeshi
Daikendori (大検取) is the fifth kumitachi set and contains ten waza. The first four waza are kodachi (shidachi) vs. ōdachi (uchidachi), while the next six are ōdachi vs. ōdachi. These techniques are only very rarely taught.
Techniques Added By Kōno Hyakuren
Kōno Hyakuren, the 20th sōke of Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū, added two sets of additional waza, called Dai Nippon Battō Hō (大日本抜刀法). The Battō Hō are based on techniques from throughout the system, but are performed starting in a standing position. As these waza were added in the 20th century, they are not considered to be koryū.
Eishin-ryū lineages without a connection to Kōno Hyakuren do not generally practise these techniques. Therefore, these waza are only included in some lines of transmission.
Dai Nippon Battō Hō, Kihon
1.順刀其の一 Juntō Sono Ichi
2.順刀其の二 Juntō Sono Ni
5.四方刀其の一 Shihōtō Sono Ichi
6.四方刀其の二 Shihōtō Sono Ni
Dai Nippon Battō Hō, Oku
These waza begin using the Okuiai walking pattern.
1.前敵逆刀 Zenteki Gyakutō
3.後敵逆刀 Kōteki Gyakutō
4.後敵抜打 Kōteki Nukiuchi